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Types of transportation and cargo

The process of movement of the goods from the point of departure to the point of destination is called transportation, and a batch of transported products is called cargo. Depending on the type of the transport vehicle one can distinguish land motor and railway transportation, water (river and marine transport) transportation, air transportation and combined transportation, if several transportation modes are used for transportation of the same cargo. In terms of product transportation routes, there is international transportation, as well as the interregional and urban transportation, which is carried out within one state. The transportation type is selected by the cargo owner based on the cargo type, the required delivery speed, cost and required safety of the batch of the goods.

Types of cargo

For selection of the optimal transportation method, cargoes are divided into certain groups and categories. Based on their physical properties in the transport classification, cargoes are divided into liquid, loose (dry cargo) and live cargoes. Each category has a subgroup that includes the goods and products similar by transport characteristics and transportation conditions required for their safety. There are the following types of cargo:

  •  liquid (liquid food products, chemical substances, oil products, liquefied gas) cargo;
  •  loose or bulk cargo;
  •  general cargo (packed/unpacked goods in batches and single pieces);
  •  condition products (perishable, requiring ventilation, etc.);
  •  hazardous cargo (explosives, highly inflammable substances and products, poisons, radioactive materials, etc.);
  •  valuable goods;
  •  oversized and super-heavy cargo;
  •  long cargo, etc.

Rules of air transportation of cargo

Transportation of all types of cargo by aircrafts shall be carried out in accordance with the special regulations.

Transportation of hazardous cargoes by airliners shall be carried out as per the Federal Aviation Regulations, which are called “Safe Air Transportation of Hazardous Cargoes and Weapons”. This set of rules regulates the following:

  •  hazard classes (9);
  •  requirements to packaging, fastening and labeling;
  •  proper documentation;
  •  availability of additional fire-extinguishing or neutralization means, etc.

As per the regulations, the incompatible cargoes shall not be transported together. Moreover, the hazardous cargoes are often transported without transshipments.

In compliance with the regulatory documents, all types of cargo transported by air must have:

  •  dry and clean packaging or tare, corresponding to their type;
  •  the weight and dimensions must not exceed the established standards (otherwise the carrier shall decide on transportation).

The following rules apply in case of international transportation:

  •  transported goods must be allowed for import/export;
  •  dimensions of the transported cargo must enable free handling,
  •  detailed and exact documentation of cargoes in accordance with the established requirements;
  •  transported goods must not constitute a hazard to aircraft, crew and passengers. 

 

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